The system of reservations in government jobs and educational institutions was introduced in India at the time of Independence. Although, a uniform policy of 50% reservation cap was established by the Supreme Court judgment in the Indra Sawhney Case , many of the States have their own reservation policies where they exceed this limit of 50%, for example, currently Tamil Nadu has a reservation Cap of 69%, Andhra Pradesh has a 66.66% cap, Maharashtra has it at 52%. The system of reservations which is already a disastrous policy for the nation is further being helped and supplemented by the States’ reservation policies in destroying the nation, as they extend beyond the national limits on reservations. The motive behind such reservation policies is purely political (vote-banks) and not for the benefits of the backward sections in these states. This exceeding of the reservation cap by states is not only disrespecting the Supreme Court Judgment and the uniform reservation policy but is also aggravating the miseries of the excluded classes in these states and the country and is also obstructing the strengthening of the Political unity of the country. The system of reservations needs to be abolished in India for its better future but initially the reservation system of all states should be brought down to the national limit level. This will act as a first step towards removal of the demonic system of reservation from India and would also remove the ill-effects of a higher than national reservation limits in States which the country is currently facing.
The crossing of the national limit on reservation policies by the States in India has caused and is still causing many negative outcomes for the nation as a whole. First of all, the States’ reservation policy of giving more than 50% reservations is inspired purely by political motives and not by the welfare of the backward people or by National Interest. If the motive of the State Governments was welfare of the backward people, the system of reservations
itself, would have been abolished as it makes the backward people even more dependent, inefficient and vulnerable. Even if we assume that the system of reservations is good for the nation, shouldn’t then there be a uniform policy on reservations throughout the country? This clearly shows that the states’ surpassing the national limit on reservations is purely for political mileage and not for national interest.
The next argument against the States’ policy of keeping their reservation limits above 50% is that it is an outright disrespect of the verdict of the Supreme Court in the Indra Sawhney Case. The States by passing various Laws in their respective State Assemblies to circumvent the Court’s Judgment on reservation limits have shown dissent to the Supreme Court’s Judgment. Since the Judiciary is also considered the interpreter of the Constitution, this act of the States can be considered to be an act against the view of the Constitution. The violating States’ reservation policies may also come under the ambit of Contempt proceedings. In no circumstance, any verdict of the Honourable Supreme should be ignored or disrespected. The States need to figure out what example are they setting for the citizens of a country like India where ‘Rule of Law’ is a pious concept.
Also, it has been claimed by experts that the higher reservation limits in States has been responsible for the secessionist tendencies in these areas. A very high reservation for the regional people (on caste basis) has strengthened the regionalist sentiments as against Nationalist feelings which has resulted into demands for a separate State. In short, higher reservation limits in States has a big role in India still not being able to transform itself into a full-fledged Nation.
Other repercussions of the States’ reservation policy of crossing the 50% mark include deterioration in the Centre-State Relations, which has costed India in terms of development, growth and poverty reduction among many other important issues; Increased miseries of the general category people in the respective States and in the country; Negative effect on the growth and development process in the states due to further replacement of meritocracy with reservations.
India will be as good as its states in totality are. Hence, there is a desperate need to first reduce the reservation limits in the states to the national level of 50% and then move towards abolishing the system of reservations altogether. Reduction in the reservation limits in states will first enable India to transform itself into a Nation in true sense and then the complete elimination of the reservation system will help in its growth flourish.